Motion control running shoes are ideal for any runner who overpronates. Designed to reduce or control excessive rolling action of the foot, correct your gait cycle and provide additional shock absorption, they are usually the most rigid type of shoe.
Cushioning is important for runners who underpronate; either if your feet do not roll inward enough or roll outward too much. The rolling motion helps your foot absorb the shock of every step that would otherwise be sent through your joints towards your spine.
Highly cushioned shoes are designed to reduce shock by helping mimic the natural process.
Stability shoes provide cushioning, medial support, and durability as a compromise between motion control and cushioned shoes. They’re designed to stop excess motion of your foot and ankle without restricting movement too much.
These shoes tend to have a different, special set of features designed to help you run on all kinds of rugged terrain from hard pack, soft pack, fell, or a combination. Features like Gore-Tex liners, midfoot wraps, and lugged rubber outsoles are common with these types of shoes and they're generally harder wearing with more durable uppers to protect your foot and stay comfortable on longer runs.
The main focus of trail running shoes however is the level of grip they offer. They're all neutral runners but the outsole changes from shoe to shoe with a deeper tread providing traction and stability on slippery and uneven surfaces and a lower profile to ensuring a quicker response to the changing terrain.